Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Nutrition and Obesity Researchers Essay Example

Nutrition and Obesity Researchers Essay Example Nutrition and Obesity Researchers Essay Nutrition and Obesity Researchers Essay Nutrition and Obesity Researchers BY kellygur13636 Obesity and Ways to Overcome It 1 Obesity A. )What is Obesity? 1 . ) Too much body fat 2. ) BMI calculates this B. )What are the causes? 1 . ) Overeating/Fast food 2. ) Not enough exercise 3. ) Television advertisements 4. ) Genes C. )Physical effects 1 . ) Not attractive 2. ) Health problems a. ) Diabetes b. ) High blood pressure D. )Mental Effects 1 . ) Social discrimination 2. ) Bias due to media 3. ) Low self-esteem 4. ) Depression 5. ) Eating Disorders 6. ) Limitations E. )Prevention 1 . ) Limiting fast food and calorie intake 2. ) Read nutrition facts . Exercise F. )Conclusion 1 . ) Eating right and exercise is the key to being healthy 2. ) Websites that can help obesity Obesity is becoming a major issue in America today. More than one-third of the population is obese according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and nearly 112,000 people die each year from obesity-related illnesses (Adult Obesity Facts). Obesity is still on the rise and has been for years. Obesity can affect anyone regardless of age, race, or gender. THERE ARE MANY FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO OBESITY AND THESE CAN HAVE MANY NEGATIVE EFFECTS BUT REASEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT HEALTHLY EATING HABITS AND EXERCISE CAN HELP AN INDIVIDUAL LIMIT THESE EFFECTS. Obesity simply means having too much body fat. This usually happens when one takes in more calories than he can burn off. This causes extra body fat and over time measured with BMI: Body Mass Index (BMI) can be used to measure both overweight and obesity in adults. It is the measurement of choice for many obesity researchers and other health professionals. BMI is a direct calculation based on height and weight, and it is not gender-specific. Most health organizations and published information on verweight and its associated risk factors use BMI to measure and define overweight and obesity. BMI does not directly measure percent of body fat, but it provides a more accurate measure of overweight and obesity than relying on weight alone (How Obesity is Measured). A BMI of 18. 5 to 24. 9 is considered healthy for adults. A BMI of 25 to 29. 9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30 and above is considered obese. People with BMIs of 18. 5 or less are considered underweight (Weight Loss Diet Plans). Obesity can be caused by several things. Eating too many fatty foods and not xercising is one cause. Some people think that fast food is to blame for obesity. Fast food is so tasty, convenient, and inexpensive. The portion sizes are bigger than they should be with supersize and extra-large. According to McDonalds USA nutrition facts a big mac contains 550 calories, a large French fry contains 500 calories, and a large coke contains 310 calories. Thats a total of 1,360 calories for one meal which is more than half of the daily recommended amount of 2,000 calories (McDonalds USA Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items). Fast food advertisements are constantly shown on television. Advertisers spend so much money advertising messages for children and teens. In the book Obesity and the Media, Oconner states: According to a Kaiser Family Foundation study, the average American child watches more than forty thousand television commercials per year Most of these forty thousand ads are for candy, cereal, soda, and fast food ( Oconner 21). Its no wonder people choose fast food over healthy, home cooked meals. Genes can also cause obesity. The genes that could influence obesity are still being investigated. Freedman states: According to the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and prevention, several independent studies have reported that a gene referred to as an FTO(fat mass- and obesity-associated) gene might be responsible for up to 22 percent of all cases of common obesity in general population(Freedman 14). If a persons parents are obese, he is at risk of becoming obese. If both of a persons parents are obese, this risk doubles. Children tend to follow the eating habits of their parents. So if the parent is always eating fatty foods, the child follows because they think it is okay (How Parents Are Influencing Their Childrens Bad Eating Habits). In todays society Obesity is not attractive. Rarely do you see someone who is obese in movies or magazines because she is not physically attractive to most people. Not only does obesity affect someone on the outside, obesity can also cause many physical effects to ones health. Being overweight or obese can increase the likelihood of developing serious health problems including the following: type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, some types of cancer, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis, respiratory problems, and sleep apnea (Overview of Obesity). the book The Mental and Physical Effects of Obesity, Jeri Freedman states: Ninety percent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Studies have shown a close relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the past, most cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed in middle-aged and elderly people. However, in numbers of preteens and teens have been diagnosed recent years, increasing with type 2 diabetes (22). This can make the lives of these people very difficult. A person with diabetes is supposed to follow a special diet, take medication, and constantly monitor the level of sugar in his blood. If this is not followed, it could cause other problems and could be fatal (22). High blood pressure, which can also be linked to obesity, is a serious condition that can lead to coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, and other health problems. In an online article titled High Blood Pressure and Obesity it says: Many medical studies have shown a relation between obesity and high blood pressure. In fact, obese people have a higher blood pressure than people with a normal blood pressure. The cardiovascular risk is increased with obesity (High Blood Pressure and Obesity). Its alarming to know that obesity can cause this many health problems. There are also many mental issues that are linked to obesity. Social discrimination is common among people who are obese. Obesity is looked down upon. People can learn to be biased from messages in the media. In the book Obesity Discrimination by Dale-Marie Bryan, he states: A 2002 study published in Research and Practice by Greenberg, Eastin ,Hofschire, Brownell and Lachlian, showed that in real life, one in four women is obese, but on television only three out of every one hundred women are portrayed as heavier. It also showed that men in real life are three times more likely to be large-sized than he men on television (27). With that said, people think that the world should be skinny, and try to live up to those standards. Discrimination can happen at school, work, and even within families. Sometimes children who are obese are ignored and made fun of by other children. This can cause low self-esteem. Low self-esteem can lead to depression. Freedman states: Depressed people often have low energy, which makes them less likely to get exercise and more likely to stay home and eat (33). Obesity can also lead to eating disorders because of the emphasis of being overweight. In an online article it states: High numbers of adolescent girls are reporting that they are dissatisfied with their bodies and are trying to lose weight in unhealthy ways, including skipping meals, fasting, and using tobacco. A smaller number of girls are even resorting to more extreme methods such as self-induced vomiting, diet pills, and laxative use. (Eating Disorders and Obesity). People who are obese cannot do some of things that people who arent obese can do. One example is, when going to an amusement park, there are weight limits on the rides, and the seats are made for smaller people. Someone who is obese cannot get n. Movie theaters, bathrooms, and restaurant booths are all made for smaller frames so being obese makes it hard to use these. A friend of mine, is considered obese. She is 25 years old, weighs 300 pounds and is 58. She has been obese since elementary school. I conducted a phone interview Being obese has affected me physically because its hard for me to do physical activities and I become out of breath and tire easily. Mentally, I often feel depressed because of my weight. Sometimes I feel that people look at me differently because of my weight and criticize me. I have been called fat and a whale numerous times by my peers. It is something that I struggle with every day. I havent had a serious relationship with a male and I believe that it is because of my weight. Guys Just dont seem to find me attractive. Both of my parents have passed away at a young age due to being obese. They both suffered from diabetes and high blood pressure. My mother was 45 when she died and my father was 47. This has opened my eyes and I have been trying to change my eating habits and exercise more. It is not easy though since I have been this way all my life. Being obese affects Katie in many ways. It is sad to hear how people treat her because of her weight. In my eyes, she is a great person, and I dont Judge her by her weight. I do try to encourage her to change her eating habits and exercise more frequently because I dont want her to lose her life because of her obesity. There are several ways that obesity can be prevented and treated. Limiting the amount of food, especially fast food, is a good way. Because fast food is so high in cholesterol and fat, limiting the amount eaten to no more than once per week can prevent someone from becoming overweight or obese. Reading the nutrition labels on foods being eaten is a good way to recognize how much fat and calories is in it. The FDA recommends that someone should choose foods that have fewer calories per serving and that are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium . The majority of calories someone eats should come from vegetables, milk, whole grains, fruit, and smaller amounts of meat. Portion control should be practiced (Using Nutrition Labels). Here are some suggestions from the FDA: Dont think of certain foods as off-limit, instead start by reducing the portion size of the unhealthy foods that you crave and add something healthy on to your plate. Use smaller plates, drink more water, and start implementing the plate model MyPlate enforced by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. When eating out, its a good idea to choose a starter like a delicious salad and then skip the supersized meal and order a normal sized meal instead. Healthy eating also means to eat slowly and make sure to chew your food properly for a better digestion. If you have a habit of eating in front of the TV or computer, its easy that you overeat. Make time to eat and dont rush it and enjoy your food without distractions (Eating Health can be easy). Exercising on a regular basis can help someone to stay fit and in shape by burning off excess calories. Bill Hendrick, a writer for WebMD Health News says, While frequent exercise is known to fght obesity and improve mental health, as little as 30 minutes of physical activity one or two days a week can have benefits. Exercise can improve someones mood because it causes the brain to release chemicals that can make someone more relaxed and less stressed out. It helps weight management and can even help someone to sleep better. (Hendrick). In the article Exercise and Physical Fitness it states that, Regular exercise is a critical part of staying healthy. People who are active live longer and feel better. Exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight. It can delay or prevent diabetes, physical activity at least five days per week. Examples include walking briskly, mowing the lawn, dancing, swimming for recreation or bicycling. Stretching and weight training can also strengthen your body and improve your fitness level (Exercise and Physical Fitness). Obesity is something that has been growing in America. With the harmful effects that come with it, many measures are taken to address it and treat it. It can be hard to lose weight and it doesnt happen overnight some people are taking steps to help it. Eating right and exercising is the key to being healthy and fit. A good way to measure BMI and determine if someone is overweight or obese is to visit cdc. gov and use the BMI tracker. There is a website available (www. myfitnesspal. com) that can track calorie intake and exercise. Many other websites are available to help overcome obesity. There are also groups someone can attend to get help, one example is weight watchers. Although obesity is still a major issue today people can get the help and take the steps needed to overcome it. BMI Calculator Plus: Personalized BMI for Your Body Type and Metabolism. WebMD. WebMD, n. d. web. 28 NOV. 2012. Bryan, Dale-Marie. Obesity Discrimination. First ed. New York: Rosen Central, 2009. Print. Eating Healthy Can Be Easy. Food Pyramid. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. Exercise and Physical Fitness. U. S National Library of Medicine. U. S. National Library of Medicine, n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. Freedman, Jeri. The Mental and Physical Effects of Obesity. First ed. New York: Rosen pub. , 2009. print. Hendrick, Bill. Even a Little Exercise Fights Obesity. WebMD. WebMD, n. d. Web. 08 NOV. 2012. High Blood Pressure and Obesity. Blood-pressure-hypertension. com. N. p. , n. d. web. NOV. 2012. How Is Obesity Measured? Annecollins. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 08 Nov. 2012. McAlpine, Katie. How Does Obesity Affect Your Life. Telephone interview. 08 Nov. 2012. McDonalds USA Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items. Nutrition. mcdonalds. com. N. p. , n. d. web. 28 NOV. 2012. Overview of Obesity. Summa Health System. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. Using the Nutrition Facts Label. Fda. gov. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012. Wilkinson, Michelle. How Parents Are Influencing Their Childrens Bad Eating Habits. Dr Akilah El Celestial Healing Wellness Center. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Words to Describe Fearful Recoil

Words to Describe Fearful Recoil Words to Describe Fearful Recoil Words to Describe Fearful Recoil By Maeve Maddox Writers are constantly reminded Show, dont tell! One way to be more descriptive in our writing is to use verbs that convey movement. Here are some words that describe movement prompted by fear, cowardice, or pain. flinch [flÄ ­nch] to draw away in anticipation of pain. The prisoner flinched when the guard raised the whip. The nobleman did not flinch as he mounted the steps to the guillotine. The soldier marched unflinchingly through the hail of arrows. shrink [shrÄ ­ngk] to draw back as if trying to make ones body smaller. One might shrink into the shadows in an attempt to become invisible. Figuratively it has the sense of avoiding danger, often used with a negative: He did not shrink from battle. By the way, the principal parts of this verb are shrink, shrank, (have) shrunk. wince [wÄ ­ns] One might wince from pain, real or anticipated. The patient winced as the dentist probed the painful molar. She winced when he called her fat. Flinch, shrink, and wince all derive from words meaning bend, turn, or turn aside blench [blÄ•nch] I used to think blench included the idea of turning pale along with recoiling. However, it is not related to blanch. It just means move suddenly, wince, or dodge. cower [kouÉ™r] Although the word looks as though it might have a connection with coward, it probably comes from a German word meaning to lie in wait. In current usage it conveys a cowardly or fearful movement. The sailor cowered under the lash. The frightened puppy cowered under the porch. cringe [krÄ ­nj] In Old English the word could mean to fall dead in battle. Now it has the less final meaning of to draw back or move in a fearful manner. The servant had a cringing manner, as if moving in constant fear of being struck. The nurse cringed as the demanding patient rang the bell for the twentieth time in ten minutes. grovel [grÃ… vÉ™l, grÃ… ­v-] This is a word to use when the action takes place close to the ground. It conveys the sense of demonstrating servility by dropping onto ones knees, or even going face down. Figuratively it can be used of people too eager to please. Deprived of his weapon, the enemy grovelled in the dirt, pleading for his life. quail [kwÄ l] Although spelled the same as the name of the game bird, the verb to quail, to lose courage, to shrink, is not related. Its origin is uncertain. Words meaning to be ill, to die, and to curdle have been suggested. In current usage, quail means to draw away in fear or weakness. He quailed at the prospect of climbing the mountain a second time. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Arrive To vs. Arrive AtAmong vs. AmongstList of Prefixes and Suffixes and their Meanings

Friday, February 14, 2020

Journal Responce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Journal Responce - Essay Example King supports the argument stating that civil disobedience is one of the main tools used by historical figures and nations to protect and justify their rights and freedom. "There is nothing new about this kind of disobedience" (p.5). Stating a thesis, King uses historical information to attract listeners attention at once. The author shows that Americans should be free from segregation and racial discrimination using direct actions, because "freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor" (p.3). The argument is aimed to persuade and convince its audience of the truth of his statement explaining that non-violent civil disobedience have deep historical roots and closely connected with human rights movements. King attempts to persuade listeners that all people are equal and racial discrimination is based on unjust laws which should be eliminated. King uses definitional arguments to explain just and unjust laws. He explains that segregation laws are unjust laws: "Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that 'an unjust law is no law at all" (p.4). These arguments are crucial for the speech because they explain to unprepared listeners principles and social rules of a free society and equal rights. Definitional arguments help listeners to grasp the idea at once and inform them about legal rules and principles of social justice. It

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Ethics in the Workplace Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ethics in the Workplace Case Study - Essay Example ain action which makes a framework for behavior of the people; nevertheless, the company in question did not put any restrictions on the actions of its employees. As it was noted in the case, sales representatives were not afraid to acknowledge that they offered brides to the doctors which is a kind of action that is recognized as a crime by the applicable law. Finally, the strength of any ethical system is primarily based on the fact that every person who works in a company, regardless of the amount of powers vested into one adheres to the ethical guidelines that are spelled out. Contrary to that, the case of TAP Pharmaceuticals proves that neither employees nor senior management was willing to introduce changes into the practices that were carried out. In other words, if there was an ethical system in the company in question, it was more a theoretical concept than the one which was applied in practice. However, a close examination of the situation would reveal that there was an ethical system which can be defined as ends driven. Indeed, every action that employees of the company made brought the goal closer. For example, they built good relationships with doctor by offering their different gifts which were actually bribes. The case talks about big screen television sets, ability to earn money by keeping the difference from selling drugs that they got for free of at a discount. However, this was done not simply to make their lives better, but they make sure that they approve the drug that is being produced by the company. In other words, all those gifts served a simple goal: convince the doctors to recommend a specific drug over the others. Keeping in mind that doctors likes the benefits that they were offered, the readily agreed to do so, knowing that cooperation is likely to bring them even more benefits. Finally, the actions that were mentioned above resulted into the fact that the company made a bigger profit if compared to the situation if it had not bribes

Friday, January 24, 2020

Discrimination of Irish Catholic Immigrants During the 1920’s Essay

Discrimination of Irish Catholic Immigrants During the 1920’s   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   During the 1920’s there were many controversial issues.   There was a concern about declining moral and ethical values, which led to restrictions such as prohibition for example.   The concern about these issues seemed most intense when they pertained to religion.   In situations like these it always seems necessary to place the blame somewhere.   One particular group on which this blame was emphasized happened to be the immigrants.   Irish Catholic immigrants were a main focus of discrimination in many ways.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The fight for immigration restriction was fueled by America’s negative view of foreigners.   Protestants especially made it a point to link alcohol with Catholic Irish immigrants.   They were looked upon as immoral and corrupt because of this.   Prohibiting alcohol was an unsuccessful way of trying to counterattack not only the immorality in urban cities, but the immigrants who resided there as well.   This was yet another example of searching for an answer to the deterioration of morals and values.   In an effort to justify prohibition, it was said that Limitation upon individual freedom in matters affecting society is the price that any people must pay for the progress of its civilization.   Personal liberty cannot rightly be claimed for practices which militate against the welfare of others or the interest of the community as a whole.   (http://www.aihs.org.history.htm) The Ku Klux Klan, which was already an established organization increased in number when efforts to prevent and discourage Irish Catholic immigrants from practicing Catholicism were unsuccessful.   The Klan considered itself to be Pro-American, which directly meant anti catholic.... ...for the Irish Catholic immigrants as well as the others, â€Å"the old-stock drive for conformity and community represented attacks on their culture, religion and ethnicity.   Repeatedly their stake in American society, their right to be American citizens, was denied†Ã‚   (Dumenil, 248).   I agree that it was their right to become American citizens.   Discriminating against Irish Catholic immigrants was unjust, especially for the reason that there is no rational or justifiable way to discriminate against which people are allowed to immigrate and which are not. work cited: 1.   http://www.illinoisrighttolife.org/racism.htm.   (7/1/98). 2.   http://www.aihs.org/History/history3.htm.   (6/1/98). 3.   http://www.aihs.org.history.htm.   (3/1/98). 4.   Lay, Shawn.   The Invisible Empire in the West.   Illinois.   1992. 5.   Dumenil, Lynn.   The Modern Temper.   New York.   1995.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Important factors shaping social relationships under the French

Social relationships were important components of the French absolute monarchy. Historians agree that to achieve supreme control and national unity, Kings relied heavily on military strength. There is little question that absolutist France came to posses the largest standing army Europe had ever seen. Armies made France a powerful state, and the King a powerful ruler. However kings also controlled through non military means, establishing bureaucratic and legal systems and developing an absolutist culture with the King at the centre.These manifestations of absolutism, at raying degrees of significance, helped shape social relationships, and in turn, enforced the absolutist regime. Contrastingly, other historians maintain that the absolute system worked within pre-existing social codes, which were more influential in shaping social relationships. Historians herald the significance of these different factors because they take a variety of historiographer's approaches. Absolutism redefin ed the socio-political structures and language of court society. Court cabals and courtesies became important factors that influenced social relationships.Emmanuel Eel Roy Ladies uses the court memoirs of Duct De Saint Simons, to explain the system of court cabals. Ladies explains how the King placed himself at the top of the court hierarchy, and held a number of favorites. L Lower courtiers would group around these powerful Individuals, such as King Louis Xiv wife Madame De Imitation, to gain power, wealth, status and other privileges through association. 2 Saint Simony's court memoirs are a more traditional historiographer's source, detailing friendships, marriages and patronage relationships that formed and separated court cabals. However Lauder himself admits the limitations of the source, stating that It has a tendency to be subjective with some bias, and Inaccurate facts. 4 But as Ladler states, his purpose was not statistical detail, but to present a ‘model' for the net work of social relationships in court society, and to reveal that they placed the king in an enormous position of influence to determine courtier's social standing. 5 Rest Raman consults similar sources and concludes that courtesies were a new political language that redefined the way courtiers socialized and communicated, while also being a political tool for negotiating the cabal system.Raman analyses Theodore Goddesses Grand Ceremonial De France from 1619, one of the many courtesy manuals written for courtiers. 6 Absolutist monarchies did not invent courtesies, but Raman argues that these manuals justified and systematized these social codes. 7 Courtesy rules dictated the nature of social affiliations and interactions, becoming a vital political language in court society, as a means of showing or denying respect or favor to individuals and cabals. For example â€Å"hat doffing†¦ And lowered eyes† became the language of respect that carried on along the hierarchy, with the King at the top. Ere â€Å"insults to God himself, † enforcing enormous regal authority. 9 Moreover, under Louis XIV, all topics except frivolous small talk, were branded ‘discourteous,' in an attempt to repress uprisings. 10 Both historians analyses similar sources and share the conclusion that absolutism created a new social order, designed to enforce the Kings power. Sarah Hanley however, argues bureaucratic models, established by the absolutist state, were important factors shaping family and gender relationships.Hanley investigates the ‘Family State Compact,' revealing that it enforced distinct gender oleos and enshrined the patriarchal family model in legislation. This model was in turn used to explain and Justify absolutism. 11 Hanley approaches her study with an â€Å"ethnographic† perspective. 12 She states that conventional historiography has always been a uniform process of selecting documents to confirm a point, but more recent scholarship on social history now seeks to gain greater scope and depth by viewing a range of non-traditional sources. 3 From these historians may distill messages about social life. 14 Hanley use of primary government legislation and court case documents, are examples of expanding historical sources. The Marriage Regulations, Reproduction Rules and Marital Separation Arrangements ensured family finances remained under paternal authority, helped guarantee the legitimacy of children and made it harder to break up marriages and families. 1 5 But as Hanley indicates, the underlying purpose of these laws was to constitutionalism patriarchal control over all family affairs. 6 It was a key bureaucratic factor that helped enforce male social and economic dominance, within the family. Furthermore, the patriarchal family worked to Justify and naturalist the appointment of an absolutist ruler, who could be seen as he â€Å"husband† and â€Å"father† of the state. 17 Furthermore, Hanley exam ination of court cases exposes legal limitations on female political and economic privileges within their marital and civic relationships.Women gained social and economic status through marriage and childbearing, but the Compact put men in greater control these activities, disemboweling women and forcing them to break laws for economic and social survival. 18 In the Diagram- du Piqued case for example, Barber- Francoise Diagram was charged with â€Å"supposition attendant† because she faked the birth of a child to avoid becoming a childless widow and losing socioeconomic status. 9 Furthermore, this source reveals that legal structures shaped collaborative relationships between women of different social classes, as Barber sought the assistance of midwifes, paupers and a prostitute. 0 Thus while primary accounts such as Saint-Simony's Memoirs explain social and genealogical connections at their surface, Handless wider variety of social records reveals in greater depth, the gend ered social constructions that defined social relationships in the absolutist monarchy, as well as unexpected cross-class relationships. Cultural manifestations of absolutism in art, gardens and entertainment were further significant factors shaping social relationships. Diverging from traditional and social historiographers, Peter Burke, Chancre Muskier and Craig Callously take an art historical concepts to court social life.He argues that the language of allegory, hyperbole and euphemism in songs, literature, sermons, painting and other mediums communicated a lofty ‘high style' that associated the King with exalted figures and ideas. 21 For example Louis XIV was pained as SST John the Baptist and Apollo. 22 Courtiers learnt these references and conducted themselves accordingly, with grandeur and dignity. 3 In turn, this new language displayed, magnified and rationalized the King as a sublime and spiritual ruler. 24 In contrast, Muskier applies geopolitical concepts to unders tanding social relationships.Muskier references historian Michel Faculty's theory that 17th century society began to view material possessions as indicators of wealth and power. 25 Increasing trade, scientific and technological innovations made material items more prominent in social gatherings and conversations. 26 Muskier argues absolutism worked within this materialist culture, valuing land the most as a material item. 7 In a geopolitical way, Kings enforced power by appropriating and manipulating land into formal gardens. In turn, this established material ownership as a language of power. 8 Material goods came to dominate social and political relationships during the 17th century. 29 Callously similarly seeks specialized research on theatre and festivals, alongside primary accounts. However he argues the political purposes of nocturnal entertainment were significant factors shaping court life. 30 For example, Baroque night time theatre developed and through its illusionist's li ghting, performances such as Louis Xiv Ballet De la Unit,† physically presented Louis as a ‘radiant' King. 1 Furthermore, court diaries from Versailles reveal an increase in concerts, balls, and billiards, offering different opportunities for solicitation. 32 Nocturnal activities changed and began to characterize social life. 33 Memoirs by Louis XIV and absolutist critic Jean De La Buyer (1645-96) also divulge that night time entertainments were deliberate distractions from political issues. 34 Callously maintains Kings communicated and secured their power through nocturnal spectacles, which consequently transformed court social relationships. 35However unlike other historians discussed, James Afar argues social relationships were shaped by concepts of ‘Honor' that pre-dated absolutist expressions of power. Like other historians, Afar relies on a primary source: Farther Lame's eye witness account of the trial and execution of disgraced nobleman Philippe Group. Unco nventionally, Group did not confess his crime, thus preserving honor but damning his soul. 36 More important to him was maintaining honor for his family and young son. 37 Honor defined people's positions of power and status. 38 It was treated as an item that could be appropriated through displays of respect. Lame's text, confirmed by trial records, reveals Group bowed and spoke respectfully to colleagues and onlookers, to earn back some of the honor he had lost. 40 Through displays of respect, Group also sought favor with his patron the Prince of Condone, who could gain him a Kings pardon. 41 Fear's study revises primary documents and challenges past historians such as Ladies and Rest, previously discussed. Courtesy codes, and court cabals were not Just to gain political power, but were part of a possible, albeit largely speculative, that Kings consciously manipulated this established framework of honor to their political advantage.But what Group's trial reveals is honor was a preci ous commodity, and was central to the way people conversed and connected. The majority of historians discussed, agree that the most important factors shaping social relationships under the absolute monarchy, were essentially the absolute monarchy itself. Absolutism established a new laws, social customs, entertainment and art that had a dramatic impact on social relationships involving gender, class, marriage, family ties and friendships. But in contrast, historians also argue that, as in any society, there were already complex social codes that absolutism worked within.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

What Is a Commodity in Economics

In economics, a commodity is defined as a tangible good that can be bought and sold or exchanged for products of similar value. Natural resources such as oil  as well as basic foods like corn are two common types of commodities. Like other classes of assets such as stocks, commodities have value and can be traded on open markets. And like other assets, commodities can fluctuate in price according to supply and demand. Properties In terms of economics, a commodity possesses the following two properties.  First, it is a good that is  usually produced and/or sold by many different companies or manufacturers. Second, it is uniform in quality between companies that produce and sell it. One cannot tell the difference between one firms goods and another. This uniformity is referred to as fungibility.   Raw materials such as coal, gold, zinc are all examples of commodities that are produced and graded according to uniform industry standards, making them easy to trade. Levis jeans would not be considered a commodity, however. Clothing, while something everyone uses, is considered a finished product, not a base material. Economists call this  product differentiation. Not all raw materials are considered commodities. Natural gas is too expensive to ship worldwide, unlike oil, making it difficult to set prices globally. Instead, it is usually traded on a regional basis. Diamonds are another example; they vary too widely in quality to achieve the volumes of scale necessary to sell them as graded commodities.   What is considered a commodity can also change over time, too. Onions were traded on commodities markets in the United States until 1955, when  Vince Kosuga, a New York farmer, and Sam Siegel, his business partner  tried to corner the market. The result? Kosuga and Siegel flooded the market, made millions, and consumers and producers were outraged. Congress outlawed the trading of onion futures in 1958 with the Onion Futures Act.   Trading and Markets Like stocks and bonds, commodities are traded on open markets. In the U.S., much of the trading is done at the Chicago Board of Trade or the New York Mercantile Exchange, although some trading is also done on the stock markets. These markets establish trading standards and units of measure for commodities, making them easy to trade. Corn contracts, for example, are for 5,000 bushels of corn, and the price is set in cents per bushel. Commodities are often called futures because trades are made not for immediate delivery but for a later point in time, usually because it takes time for a good to be grown and harvested or extracted and refined. Corn futures, for example, have four delivery dates:  March, May, July, September, or December.  In textbook examples, commodities are usually sold for their marginal cost  of production, though in the real world the price may be higher due to tariffs and other trade barriers.  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹ The advantage to this kind of trading is that it allows growers and producers to receive their payments in advance, giving them liquid capital to invest in their business, take profits, reduce debt, or expand production. Buyers like futures, too, because they can take advantage of dips in the market to increase holdings. Like stocks, commodity markets are also vulnerable to market instability. Prices for commodities dont just affect buyers and sellers; they also affect consumers. For example, an increase in the price of crude oil can cause prices for gasoline to rise, in turn making the cost of transporting goods more expensive. Sources The Economist staff. What Makes Something a Commodity? Economist.com, 3 January 2017.Kennon, Joshua. Definition and Examples of What Commodities Are. TheBalance.com, 27 October 2016.Romer, Keith. The Great Onion Corner And The Futures Market. NPR.org, 22 October 2015.Smith, Stacey Vanek. What Is a Commodity, Anyway? Marketplace.org, 21 November 2013.